How to work with telephone wiring
Plug and Socket Telephone system (PST) or New Plan was introduced into the UK in the
early eighties. This was to allow the easy connection (no engineer needed) of portable
PST afforded a new way of wiring sockets as well, if you could call it new! The wiring was
similar to the way that 200 and 300 type telephones were connected together and effectively
used three wires in parallel.
The original PST sockets were:
Jacks No. 620A - master, surface, with captive lid
Jacks No. 621A - master, surface, with non-captive lid
Jacks No. 622A - secondary, surface, with captive lid
Jacks No. 623A - secondary, surface, with non-captive lid
Circuit diagram of Jack No. 610 (LJU's are wired the same). The master type is shown to the left.
These jacks (shown to the right) were coloured light grey and had screw terminations. The socket outlet was on
the side and not the top. The captive lid type stopped removal of the telephone plug, which
could only be released by removing the lid with the aid of a screwdriver.
See picture below.
These Line jacks were superseded by Line Jack Unit (LJU) No's 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 10.
Each version comprised of master and secondary sockets. Some LJU's also had a PBX master
variant (cheapened version of master - with the lightning arrestor removed).
Note that the outlet jack is numbered in reverse compared to the strip connection on the back of the jack.
i.e. outlet 6 is
connected to strip connection 1 (the picture below shows jack/strip
numbering). This information is included for design purposes only and in
all normal cases the strip connection numbers should be used throughout this
Some LJU's have screw terminations whilst most have Insulation Displacement Connections
(IDC). IDC allows for quick termination as one does not have to solder or use screw
connections. The wire is forced, by the use of a special tool (Wire Inserter), into the slot of a strip of
metal. The wire must be terminated with the insulation intact and two wires can be terminated in one IDC
Many manufacturers make IDC connectors but BT decided to use those made by Krone. This
effectively standardised this make throughout the Telecommunications industry in the UK.
The sockets are wired together using three pair cable of twisted pair design and the old
quad cable was dispensed with. Twisted pair was standardised because these meant that the
same cable could be used for telephone system featurephones as well as standard analogue
phones. System featurephones in general use a pair in the cable to transmit data to
and from the telephone system. If the old quad cable was used on a modern telephone
system, then there is a good chance that the data signal will be induced on the other
wires in the cable causing overhearing and data noise (a ticking sound). The twisted
pairs neutralise this problem and allow for faster transmission of data, with minimal
crosstalk. Twisted pair cable normally has a bright wire sheath, whilst quad cable came with a grey or ivory sheath.
Every PST system must have one master socket, but can have any number of slave/secondary
sockets (subject to cable lengths and whether the wiring goes out of the premises).
The Master LJU contains a capacitor, a resistor
and a surge protector. PBX master sockets used internally have the surge protector
and resistor missing. The capacitor is part of the ringing circuit, the resistor is for line testing
purposes and the surge protector is for arresting high voltage discharges
(not lightning!). Secondary sockets on the other hand have no electrical components.
Sockets are connected together by means of 6 wire cable. All the secondary sockets
are `daisy chained' off the master.
Only connect two wires maximum to any IDC connector.
A Master socket can be made into a secondary socket by cutting off all the
Extension bells are wired off connections 3 and 5.
BT LINE MASTER SOCKET WIRING SECONDARY SOCKET
1 ----- GREEN/WHITE ---------- 1 -------
A ------------ 2 ------ BLUE/WHITE ---------- 2 -------
3 ----- ORANGE/WHITE --------- 3 -------
PBX EARTH ------- 4 ----- WHITE/ORANGE --------- 4 -------
B ------------ 5 ------ WHITE/BLUE ---------- 5 -------
6 ----- WHITE/GREEN ---------- 6 -------
THE BT LINE WIRING CAN BE ANY COLOUR AND POLARITY IS NOT USUALLY A PROBLEM.
SOCKET CONNECTION 4 IS USED ONLY ON PBX EXTENSIONS FOR RECALL AND IS CONNECTED TO
EARTH AT THE MASTER SOCKET. CONNECTIONS 1 & 6 ARE FOR FUTURE USE (OR USED
WITH SPECIALIST EQUIPMENT)
In the UK you can only wire to the Network provider if you have a Network Termination Socket (NTE No. 5 shown to the right). This is the type where you can release the front plate,
to find connectors on the rear. The
network provider owns the NTE and the wiring to the socket.
You connect your wiring to the back of this plate and
then refit it. The plate locates in an internal socket which is also used
as a test point.
If your phone line goes wrong - you release the
front plate and plug a known working telephone instrument in the socket that is
now exposed. If the line works, then it is your wiring at fault. You
are responsible for this wiring - do not call the Network provider!
If your house is fitted with any other type of line
jack, or you have to hard wire to the line - then it is illegal for you to connect any wiring into it!
For more information please contact OFTEL.
LIGHTNING CAN DAMAGE YOUR WEALTH
Go to the lightning page to find out how!